1938: American Medical Association rejects black physicians

American Medical Association rejects request from 5,000 black physicians to join the AMA. The rejection was widely reported in German medical jounals. (Lifton, Nazi Medicine: the anti-Hippocratic Legacy)

Not until July 2008, did the American Medical Association issue a formal apology for discriminating against black physicians well into the 1960s.

“the AMA failed, across the span of a century, to live up to the high standards that define the noble profession of medicine…The medical profession, which is based on a boundless respect for human life, had an obligation to lead society away from disrespect of so many lives. The AMA failed to do so and has apologized for that failure.” ( Ronlad Davis, MD, Journal of the American Medical Association, July 16, 2008)