*1950s–1980: Psycho-electronic brain experiments — surgically implanted electrodes

The psycho-electronic experiments aimed at controlling individual behavior, ultimately to be used as a means for social control — thereby laying the groundwork for a totalitarian state. Physicians involved in these nefarious experiments include: Dr. Jose Delgado, Director of Neuropsychiatry at Yale University Medical School (1950s); Dr. Robert Heath, chairman of psychiatry at Tulane (1950–1980); Harvard professors: Dr. William Sweet, director of neurosurgery at Massachusetts General Hospital, Dr. Vernon Mark, head of neurosurgery at Boston City Hospital, and psychiatrist, Dr. Frank Ervin; Dr. Louis Jolyon West, chairman Neuropsychiatric Institute at UCLA (1970s)