1950s: Drs. Jonas Salk & Thomas Francis tested their influenza vaccine in institutionalized mental patients

Dr. Jonas Salk and Dr. Thomas Francis tested their influenza vaccine in institutionalized mental patients and prisoners in Michigan; Dr. Albert Sabin tested his live virus polio vaccine in 133 prisoners at the Federal Reformatory in Ohio; Sloan-Kettering collaborated with Ohio State University, and conducted cancer experiments in which live cancer cells were injected into supposed “volunteers”. (J Am Acad Psych Law, 2013)