BLUEBIRD (1949–1951) the first integrated CIA mind-control project

BLUEBIRD was the first structured comprehensive, integrated CIA mind control project involving both domestic and overseas covert activities designed to study enemy techniques and test them on selected individuals, including “potential intelligence agents, defectors, refugees, Prisoners of War and “others.” Under this early program, experimental psychoactive drugs and hypnosis were used; the objective was to prevent secret information from being extracted from CIA’s agents. A CIA document indicated that BLUEBIRD material was “not fit for public consumption.” (Acid Dreams, 1992) American POWs who returned from Korean captivity were subjected to various behavioral modification techniques, experimental drugs, hypnosis, and “special interrogation methods” — the euphemism for torture — at Bethesda Naval Hospital, Walter Reed, Valley Forge in Pennsylvania, in CIA’s quest to develop reliable methods for detecting deception. The Army, Navy, and Air Force joined the CIA in Project Bluebird.