Some of Hitler’s most sinister accomplices extended the grossly unethical research paradigm from Dachau and Auschwitz to America where U.S. soldiers became the first “voluntary” guinea pigs in harm producing experiments, soon followed by unwitting civilians.
Dr. Friedrich “Fritz” Hoffmann, a chemist who synthesized poison gases and toxins for the Luftwaffe’s Technical Research Institute, Berlin was the fourth Paperclip scientist to arrive at Edgewood Arsenal in 1947. Hoffmann’s experience researching truth serums and nerve gas for the Nazi SS made him a sought after Paperclip recruit. Hank Albarelli reports that Hoffmann
“continued his experiments refining lethal sarin and tabun gases for warfare objectives, utilizing a specially built gas chamber put together along with Edgewood Arsenal research chief Dr. Seymour Silver, within which countless animals were destroyed, and at least 25 alleged ‘volunteer’ American servicemen were experimented upon. Reports that several servicemen died in these experiments have persisted for decades, but the Pentagon refuses to release any documents concerning the experiments.” (CIA’s Denial of Protecting Nazis is Blatant Lie, 2010)
Oxygen deprivation experiments
In 1952, “oxygen deprivation experiments” were conducted on American soldiers at Edgewood Arsenal under the direction of Fritz Hoffmann and Dr. Karl Tauboeck, an I.G. Farben chemist who had also researched truth serums and nerve gases for the Nazi SS. The experiments at Edgewood were conducted in a specially constructed gas chamber; they were similar to those conducted at Dachau where all the experiments resulted in death. Albarelli notes that the results of the oxygen deprivation experiments on American human subjects at Edgewood remain secret. However, he cites a CIA memorandum (April 11, 1952) in which the effects of Oxygen deprivation are described:
The experiments were similar to those conducted at Dachau; they were conducted in a specially constructed chamber at Edgewood. At Dachau the experiments resulted in the human subjects’ death. What were the results of the oxygen deprivation experiments on American human subjects at Edgewood? A CIA memorandum (April 11, 1952) describes the effects of Oxygen deprivation:
“… affects the higher brain centers, resembling alcoholic inebriation. Some subjects became exhilarated, talkative, or quarrelsome, with emotional outbursts or fixed ideas. Some complained of headache or numbness. Voluntary coordination and attention are impaired… burns and bruises are not noticed.” (Albarelli. CIA’s Denial is Blatant Lie, 2010)
Albarelli reports that in 1950, Hofmann visited St. Louis Mental Hospital and Iona Mental Hospital in Detroit to review LSD human experiments being conducted there, after which he was asked “to formally share his voluminous knowledge about hallucinogenic and other mind-altering drugs with agency chemists.” The CIA then hired him as a consultant on psychoactive chemicals who searched the world for venoms and poisonous pathogens to be tested, synthesized and turned into new lethal or incapacitating psychoactive agents.
In the mid-1950s Hoffmann joined a specially created CIA front-organization called Chemophyl Associates whose primary corporate officers were CIA officials: Dr. Sidney Gottlieb who headed the infamous MK-ULTRA program, Dr. Robert Lashbrook, and Dr. Ray Teichler of CIA’s Chemical Branch.
“In the late 1950s, Dr. Hoffmann’s work for the CIA and Fort Detrick also evolved into intensive research regarding the development of lethal chemical agents to be used as weapons in Vietnam. One of these weapons initially became known as Agent White, then Agent Blue, and eventually and infamously as Agent Orange, a so-called herbicide, or defoliant, that wreaked havoc with the health of countless American soldiers and veterans.” (Albarelli. 2010)
From 1950 to 1975 more than 7,000 soldiers at Edgewood Arsenal and Fort Detrick were subjected to secret experiments testing “a witches’ brew” of extremely and incapacitating chemicals. Nerve gases—including, tabon and sarin that were imported from Hitler’s secret biochemical weapons arsenal—were tested on American soldiers. (Read Chemical & Biological WMD tests on soldiers and CIA Mind-Control Experiments)