Reference Sources for Experiments Prior to World War II

Advisory Committee on Human Radiation Experiments (ACHRE) Report Ch. 2, 1995.

Lawrence Altman. Who Goes First? The Story of Self-Experimentation in Medicine, 1988

Appeal from the Lübeck Decision, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), 1932

Nicholas Bakalar.  Where the Germs Are: A Scientific Safari, 2003

Edwin Black. War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America’s Campaign to Create a Master Race, 2003. Excerpt in History News Network

Baruch Cohen. The Ethics of Using Medical Data From Nazi Experiments, 2001

Eugenics and Testicle Transplants: San Quentin’s Dark History, Prison Log Law, 2010

Experiments on Human Beings, JAMA, 1900, 34, 1358-59

Ravindra Ghooi. The Nuremberg Code–A critique, Perspectives in Clinical Research, 2011

Michael Grodin and Leonard Glantz. Children As Research Subjects: Science, Ethics, and Law, 1994

Susan Lederer. Subjected to Science: Human Experimentation in America Before WWII, 1995

Simona LUCA and Traian MIHAESCU. History of BCG Vaccine, Maedica: Journal of Clinical Medicine, 2013

Carmelo R Marrero. Puerto Ricans Outraged Over Secret Medical Experiments, Puerto Rico Herald, 2002

Timothy Murphy. The Ethics of Research with Children, AMA, 2003

NCBI. NIH. cholera experiments on 24 prisoners in the Philippines killing thirteen

AE Samaan Harvard and the Holocaust, 2013

X. Sierra. Ethics in Medical Research in Humans… 2011