Reference Sources for Nazi Germany’s Atrocities

A Holocaust Crossroads: Jewish Women and Children in Ravensbrück, edited by Irith Dublon Knebel, 2010

Yehuda G. Adam. Justice in Nuremberg: The Doctors’ Trial – 60 Years Later A Reminder, Israeli Medical Association Journal, 2007

Betty Adelson. The Lives of Dwarfs: Their Journey from Public Curiosity Toward Social Liberation, 2005;

Judith Buber Agassi. Jewish Women Prisoners of Ravensbrück: Who Were They? 2008

Leo Alexander. “Medical Science under Dictatorship.” New England Journal of Medicine 40, 1949

Götz Aly. Hitler’s Beneficiaries: Plunder, Racial War, and the Nazi Welfare State, 2007; Cleansing the Fatherland: Nazi Medicine and Racial Hygiene, 1994

Anatomy in the Third Reich Edited by Sabine Hildebrandt and Christoph Redies, Annals of Anatomy –  The women on Stieve’s list: Victims of national socialism whose bodies were used for anatomical research, Clinical Anatomy, 2013

George Annas. The Legacy of the Nuremberg Doctors’ Trial to American Bioethics and Human Rights, Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology, 2007

Jeanne Armstrong. Community, Survival and Witnessing in Ravensbruck, 2011)

Atrocities on Trial Historical Perspectives on the Politics of Prosecuting War Crimes Edited by Patricia Heberer and Jürgen Matthä, 2008; Introduction

Jeremiah A. Barondess. “Medicine Against Society.” JAMA, 1996

Naomi Baumslag. Murderous Medicine — Nazi Doctors, Human Experimentation, and Typhus, 2005.

Emily Bazelon. The Nazi Anatomists: How the Corpses of Hitler’s Victims Are Still Haunting Modern Science—and American Abortion Politics, Slate, 2013

Susan Benedict. Roles of physicians and nurses in the “medical” experiments Related to “racial hygiene”. In Human Subjects Research After the Holocaust, ed. By Sheldon Rubenfeld and Susan Benedict, 2014

Edwin Black. The Story of the New Jersey Doctor Who Helped Kill Prisoners at Buchenwald…War Against the Weak: Eugenics and America’s Campaign to Create a Master Race, 2003;
Edwin BlackIBM and the Holocaust          

Roy Lavon Brooks. When Sorry Isn’t Enough: The Controversy Over Apologies and Reparations for Human Injustice, 1999

Christopher R. Browning.  The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939 – March 1942. Comprehensive History of the Holocaust, 2004.

Child Murder and “Special Children’s Wards” in Nazi Europe:  Commemoration and Historical Research. Ed by Lutz Kaelber and Raimond Reiter. Hamburg 2011. “Am Spiegelgrund”

Tessa Chelouche and Geoffrey Brahmer.  Casebook on Bioethics and the Holocaust. Israel National Commission for UNESCO, 2013

Tom Clark. “The Beautiful Beast”: Why Was Irma Grese Evil? Working paper for the Dept. of Sociological Studies, University of Sheffield, 2012

Herwig Czech. Abusive Medical Practices on “Euthanasia” Victims in Austria During and After WWII. In Human Subjects Research After the Holocaust. ed. By Sheldon Rubenfeld and Susan Benedict, 2014

Deadly Medicine. US. Holocaust Memorial Museum Exhibition, 2004Women in the Holocaust, Harmut Hanauske-Abel, Sarah Helm,

Elfing-Haar. First of three Bavarian children killing centers operated between Oct. 1940 –1945.

Edzard Ernst, MD, PhD Killing In The Name Of Healing: The Active Role Of The German Medical Profession During The Third Reich, American Journal of Medicine, 1996 cited by Michael Greger, MD. Nazi Doctors

Mareike Fallet and Simone Kaiser. Concentration Camp Bordellos: “The Main Thing Was to Survive it All,” Der Spiegel, 2009

Henry Friedlander. The Origins of Nazi Genocide: From Euthanasia to the Final Solution, 1995
Obituary, Jewish Daily Forward, 2012

Jarek Gajewski: Ravensbrück 74 Cases of Medical Experiments Conducted on Polish Political Prisoners is maintained at the University of Toronto

Peter Norbert Gengler. Exhibiting Antifascism: Ravensbrück And The Ambivalences Of East German Commemoration, 1945-1989, a thesis, University of North Carolina, 2013)

German Guidelines on Human Experimentation, 1931. Encyclopedia of Bioethics, Ed. Warren T Reich

Harmut Hanauske-Abel. Not a Slippery Slope or Sudden Subversion: German Medicine and National Socialism in 1933, BMJ, 1996

Victoria Gil. Victims of the Nazi Anatomists, BBC, Jan. 27, 2013

Myrna Goldenberg, “Memoirs of Auschwitz Survivors,” in Women in the Holocaust, edited by Dalia Ofer and Lenore J Weitzman, 1998

Allan Hall. Nazi women exposed as every bit as bad as Hitler’s deranged male followers, The Daily Mail, February 11, 2009

Harmut Hanauske-Abel. Not a Slippery Slope or Sudden Subversion: German Medicine and National Socialism in 1933, BMJ, 1996

Sarah Helm. Ravernsbrück: Life and Death in Hitler’s Concentration Camp for Women, 2015; excerpts

Sabine Hildebrandt. Transgression: Anatomical Research in National Socialism. In Human Subjects       Research After the Holocaust, ed. By Sheldon Rubenfeld and Susan Benedict, 2014;
Anatomy in the Third Reich Edited by Sabine Hildebrandt and Christoph Redies, Annals of Anatomy – The women on Stieve’s list: Victims of national socialism whose bodies were used for anatomical research, Clinical Anatomy, 2013;
Sabine Hildebrandt.  Anatomischer Anzeiger Volume 194, Special Issue, June 2012;
Sabine Hildebrandt. Continuing Impact of the Pernkopf Debate, Clinical Anatomy, 2006;

Gerrit Hoehendorf and Maike Rotzoll. Medical Research and National Socialist Euthanasia: Carl Schneider and the Heidelberg Research Children from 1942 until 1945, in Human Subjects Research After the Holocaust…2014

Holocaust Education & Archive Research Team. T-4 Program Origins, Planning & Staff

Gerrit Hoehendorf and Maike Rotzoll. Medical Research and National Socialist Euthanasia: Carl                         Schneider and the Heidelberg Research Children from 1942 until 1945. In Human Subjects                      Research After the Holocaust…2014

Human Subjects Research After the Holocaust, Ed. by Sheldon Rubenfeld and Susan Benedict, 2014

Lutz Kaelber. Child Murder in Nazi Germany: the Memory of Nazi Medical Crimes and Commemoration of “Children’s Euthanasia” Societies, 2012

Michael H. Kater. Doctors Under Hitler, 1989; The Sewering Scandal of 1993 in Medicine and Modernity: Public Health and Medical Care, ed. Manfred Berg and Geoffrey Cocks, 2002

Kathrin Kompisch. Perpetrators: Women Under National Socialism,2009

Yehuda Koren and Eilat Negev. Giants: The Dwarfs Of Auschwitz, 2013 (first published in 2004) Excerpts in The Daily Mail and The Guardian 2013; videos on the Smithsonian channel here and here

Lucette Matalon Lagnado and Sheila Cohn Dekel.  Children of the Flames: Dr. Josef Mengele and the Untold Story of the Twins of Auschwitz, 1991

Hans-Joachim Lang. The Women of Block 10: Medical Experiments in Auschwitz (2011);
August Hirt and “Extraordinary Opportunities for Cadaver Delivery”… A murderous Change in Paradigm, Annals of Anatomy, 2013.

Karolina Lanckoronska. Michelangelo in Ravensbrück: One Woman’s War Against the Nazis, 2008

Susan Lederer. Research Without Borders: The Origins of the Declaration of Helsinki, in History and Theory of Human Experimentation, Ed. Ulif Schmid and Andreas Frewer, 2007

Robert Jay Lifton. The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide, 1986; 2000         

Wendy Lower. Hitler’s Furies: German Women in the Nazi Killing Fields, 2013, Excerpt

Elissa Mailänder. The Violence of Female Guards in Nazi Concentration Camps (1939-1945), February, 2015, Online Encyclopedia of Mass Violence

Jack Morrison. Ravensbrück: Everyday Life in a Women’s Concentration Camp, 1939-45, 2000

Francis Nicosia and Jonathan Huener. Medicine and Medica Ethics in Nazi Germany: Origins, Practices, Legacies, 2002

Jon Nordheimer.  For Twins of Auschwitz, Time to Unlock Secrets New York Times, April 14, 1991

Nuremberg Doctors Trial Indictments
Nuremberg Doctors Sentences: U.S. Holocaust Museum
Nuremberg Trials Project at Harvard Law School Library

Michael O’Reilly. Nazi Medicine: The Perversion of the Noblest Profession, Canadian Medical Association Journal, 1993

The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics, edited by Ezekiel Emanuel, Christine Grady, Robert Crouch, Reidar Lie, Franklin Miller and David Wendler, 2008

Edward D. Pellegrino, MD and David C. Thomasma . Dubious Premises—Evil Conclusions; Moral Reasoning at the Nuremberg Trials. Cambridge Quarterly Healthcare Ethics, 2000

Wanda Półtawska. And I Am Afraid of My Dreams, translated 1987

Heather Pringle. Confronting Anatomy’s Nazi Past, Science Magazine, August 16, 2010

Robert N. Proctor. Racial Hygiene: Medicine Under the Nazis, 1988;
Robert N. Proctor. Nazi doctors, radical medicine and human experimentation. In: Annas AJ, Gordin MA, eds. The Nazi Doctors and the Nuremberg Code: Human Rights in Human Experimentation, 2001

Anne Reamey. Holocaust History Project. August Hirt: Deadly Collector of the Victims of the Holocaust

Representing Auschwitz: At the Margins of Testimony, edited by Nicholas Chare and Dominic Williams, 2013

Andrew Roberts. Medal for murder: Germany honours Nazi SS doctor linked to deaths of 900 children in death camps, The Daily Mail, May 27, 2008

Vanessa Ruiz. Pernkopf Anatomy Atlas: Tainted Beauty, 2007

Rochelle Saidel. The Jewish Women of Ravensbrück, 2004

AE Samaan. From A Race of Masters to a Master Race, 2013;
AE Samaan. Harvard and the Holocaust, 2013

Wendy Sarti. Examining Why Sadism Violence and Identity, The Group and the Common Enemy, in Women and Nazis: Perpetrators of Genocide and Other Crimes During Hitler’s Regime (1933-1945) 2011

Ulf Schmidt. The Scars of Ravensbrück: Medical Experiments and British War Crimes Policy, 1945-1950, German History, 2005

Terese Pecak-Schwartz. Holocaust Forgotten—Five Million Non-Jewish Victims, 2012

William E. Seidelman MD Science and Inhumanity: The Kaiser-Wilhelm/Max Planck Society, 2001; “The Legacy of Academic Medicine and Human Exploitation in the Third Reich” in Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 2000Medicine and Murder in the Third Reich, Dimensions, A Journal of Holocaust Studies, 1999; Whither Nuremberg? Medicine’s Continuing Nazi Heritage, Medicine and     Global Survival, 1995

Michael Shevell. Neurology 42(1992):2214-2219.

Alette Smeulers. Female Perpetrators: Ordinary or Extra-Ordinary Women? International Criminal Law Review, 2015

AN Sofair, MD and LD Kaldjian MD. “Eugenic Sterilization and a Qualified Nazi Analogy: U.S. and Germany, 1930–1945”, Annals of Internal Medicine, 2000

Robert Sommer. Concentration Camp Bordello: Sexual Forced Labor, 2009

Vivien Spitz. Doctors From Hell: the Horrific Account of Nazi Experiments on Humans, 2005

Rael D. Strous. Psychiatry During the Nazi Era: Ethical Lessons for the Modern Professional, Annals of General Psychiatry, 2007.

Germaine Tillion. Ravensbrück, 1997

Karen Iris Tucker. Life Inside the Ravensbrück Concentration Camp for Women, Slate, April 16, 2015

Unresolved questions of German medicine and medical history in the past and present. Center European History 1993 cited by Hanauske-Abel.

Paul Weindling. John W. Thompson: Psychiatrist in the Shadow of the Holocaust, 2010;  Victims and Survivors of Nazi Human Experiments: Science and Suffering in the Holocaust, 2014;  The Nazi Medical Experiments in The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics, Edited by Ezekiel Emanuel, et al, 2008; Paul Weindling. Nazi Medicine and the Nuremberg Trials: From Medical War Crimes to Informed  Consent, 2004;  Epidemics and Genocide in Eastern Europe, 2000;  Health, Race and German Politics between  National Unification and Nazism 1870-1945 (published 1989)

Lawrence W. White M.D. The Nazi Doctors and the Medical Community; Honor or Censure? The Case of Hans Sewering, Journal of Medical Humanities , 1996, Vol. 17; 19-135

Martyn Whittock. A Brief History of The Third Reich, 2011

Women Under Siege (Sexual Violence Against Jewish Women During the Holocaust, edited by Sonja M. Hedgepeth and Rochelle G. Saidel, 2010

Lawrence A. Zeidman, MD, James Stone, MD, Daniel Kondziella, MD, Ph. New Revelations About Hans   Berger, Father Of The EEG, And His Ties To The Third Reich, J of Child Neurology, 2013 

Kathleen Zhang. Beyond Death: The Aesthetics of the Human Corpse, NYU, 2013