The universal right of Informed Consent to medical interventions has been recognized in US law since at least 1914. That year, the New York Court of Appeals established the right to informed consent to medical intervention in a case involving non-consensual surgery. Schloendorff v. Society of New York Hospital 105 N.E. 92, 93 N.Y. (1914)…

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National Bioethics Advisory Committee Report: Ethical & Policy Issues in Research Involving Human Participants. The shift from “human subject” as defined by the Nuremberg Code to “participant” obscures the role & function of human subjects in medical experiments.

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