This entry is part 1 of 5 in the series Nuremberg Code

August 20, 1947: Judgment at Nuremberg: 16 out of 23 doctors were found guilty of crimes against humanity. The Nuremberg verdict also set forth the parameters of “Permissible Medical Experiments” known as the Nuremberg Code. The Nuremberg Code laid the foundation for biomedical ethics mandating that medical experiments conducted on human beings must conform to well-defined…

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This entry is part 2 of 5 in the series Nuremberg Code

American public health officials and the medical community pretended that the Nuremberg Code did not apply to American medical researchers. The assumption was that the physicians who had conducted heinous experiments had been Nazi doctors in Germany; and they rationalized that most of the rogue doctors had been held accountable by the tribunals. (Lederer. Military…

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This entry is part 3 of 5 in the series Nuremberg Code

Judgment at Nuremberg All sixteen Nazi doctors were found guilty; seven were sentenced to death and executed, nine were convicted and sentenced to prison, and seven were acquitted. Karl Gebhardt was found guilty of “crimes against humanity” and war crimes for his experimental atrocities at Ravensbrück and was hanged. His two assistants, Fritz Fischer and…

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This entry is part 4 of 5 in the series Nuremberg Code

The revelations at Nuremberg were extremely discomforting to the American medical establishment: the sheer unprecedented scale of immorality of the Nazi doctors was staggering — and the potential of guilt by association. The fact that the American medical profession had also enthusiastically embraced eugenics; Americans provided financial support for Nazi racial hygiene research; they adopted…

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This entry is part 5 of 5 in the series Nuremberg Code

The Nuremberg Code [from Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. 10. Nuremberg, October 1946 – April 1949. Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O, 1949 – 1953.]  Permissible Medical Experiments The great weight of the evidence before us is to the effect that certain types of medical experiments on human…

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