The government began sponsoring total body irradiation (TBI) research in 1942 in connection with the Top Secret Manhattan Project — the nuclear scientists who developed the Atom Bomb. From its inception with the US nuclear program and supporting government policy placed scientific and military advancement far above the safety of the American people. At least eight of the 42 institutions performed their research with government contracts; an additional three were VA hospitals and one is the Los Alamos Hospital. More than 4,000 such experiments were funded by the Department of Defense, the National Institutes of Health, and other federal agencies. (Read more: ACHRE Report, 1995.)