An avalanche of recent scholarship During the first three decades of the 20th century, Germany was the leading nation in all fields of science and technology (“the Mecca of science”). German medicine and medical research was the most advanced in the world; and Germany’s medical code of ethics for human experimentation, “Guidelines for Human Experimentation”…

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Before the Third Reich, German anatomists relied on unclaimed corpses from hospitals, psychiatric facilities, and prisons; but prisons were a minor source because Germany executed fewer than 20 civilians a year between 1907 and 1932. After the Nazis gained control, the government meted out death sentences for even minor infractions, such as “defeatism” or telling…

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