1953: Artichoke Conference

Artichoke Conference: “use of criminals and the criminally insane have been very successful.” CIA Security Research chief Paul Gaynor stated at an Artichoke Conference meeting at Fort Detrick,

All individuals can be broken under mental and physical assaults and by such techniques as denying sleep, exhaustion, persuasion, starvation, pain, humiliation, and sickness. . .The capacity to endure assaults of all kinds varies in individuals. We need to teach the Artichoke techniques to medical officers in the field . . . we also need to combine these techniques with the work carried on at Edgewood Arsenal and at Camp Dietrich [sic] . . . and the special use of ergots, as well as Lysergic Acid. Experiments with new ideas, for example the hypo-spray instrument (owned by the E.R. Squibb Company) using criminals and the criminally insane, have been very successful.