1995: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published a Roadmap of Human Radiation Experiments summarizing 150 plus an additional 275 radiation experiments conducted by DOE and its predecessor, the AEC, during the 1940s–1970s. The Roadmap cites a 1986 congressional report entitled American Nuclear Guinea Pigs: Three Decades of Radiation Experiments on U.S. Citizens. Basic guidance for identifying experiments is contained in Executive Order 12891, issued January 15, 1994, and in a January 19, 1994, White House memorandum. These authorities define human radiation experiments as

  • Experiments on individuals involving intentional exposure to ionizing radiation, and
  • Experiments involving intentional environmental releases of radiation that (A) were designed to test human health effects of ionizing radiation; or (B) were designed to test the extent of human exposure to ionizing radiation.