<p> Chromium 6_Carcinogen tested in 5 humans in the US </p> <p> Sat, 8 Nov 2003 </p> <p> Chromium 6 is classified by the Environmental Protection Agency as an "inhalation carcinogen." Chromium 6 is a by-product of industrial processes and is linked to severe health problems, including lung cancer. No only those who saw the movie, Erin Brockovich, know that Chromium 6 is at the center of controversy--industry vs. environmentalists. </p> <p> "Chromium-6 can find its way into the environment if the industries that use chromium mismanage their waste streams....Chromium can enter the body when breathed in contaminated air, ingested through water or food, or absorbed through skin when in soil, water, or air." See: <a href="http://www.nesc.wvu.edu/ndwc/articles/OT/SP03/Chromium.html">http://www.nesc.wvu.edu/ndwc/articles/OT/SP03/Chromium.html</a> </p> <p> Yet, contrary to universal codes of medical ethics, this carcinogen was tested in an experiment conducted in the US on 5 human subjects--the investigators and the subjects were employees of ChemRisk. The subjects (but not the investigators) were given water laced with 5 incremental doses of chromium 6. The purpose of this industry sponsored experiment was to prevent regulatory requirements to lower the concentration standard for this toxic environmental pollutant. </p> <p> The published report (cited below) acknowledges: "A dose-related increase in urinary chromium excretion was observed in all volunteers. Red blood cell and plasma chromium concentrations became elevated in certain individuals at the highest doses." (p.151) </p> <p> According to the published article "A Human Use Committee composed of three occupational physicians and one toxicologist (each a university faculty member) with experience in chromium toxicology reviewed the protocol prior to the study." We wonder how much university faculty consultants are paid by industry to obtain approval for such morally untenable human experiments? </p> <p> The published report claims: "None of the five subjects experienced any adverse health effects as a result of ingesting designated doses of Cr(VI), and the three individuals ingesting the higher dosages showed no clinically significant changes in urine, blood, or blood chemistry parameters. The absence of clinical findings in our study is consistent with studies cited by the USEPA in support of their current health advisories and regulatory guidelines concerning Cr(VI))." (Citation below, p. 158) </p> <p> However, the reported results (p. 153) lead us to question what the actual adverse effects might have been for at least 2 of the 5 human subjects who discontinued: "Due to scheduling conflicts, subjects 2 and 3 did not continue the study after 500 and 1000 ug Cr(VI)/ day doses, respectively. All other subjects completed all five doses of the study, but some of the blood samples were lost, spilled, clotted or analyzed incorrectly at the laboratory. These missing data may limit interpretation to some degree,, but the overall trends for blood chromium content across doses seem fairly consistent in general." </p> <p> The Nuremberg Code limits human experiments to those that are expected "to yield fruitful results for the good of society, unprocurable by other methods or means of study." (2) </p> <p> According to the Nuremberg Code standards, a potentially carcinogenic experiment could only be conducted in humans "if the experimental physicians also serve as subjects." (5) </p> <p> See: Human Ingestion of Chromium (VI) in Drinking Water: Pharmacokinetics Following Repeated Exposure </p> <p> BRENT L. FINLEY,* BRENT D. KERGER,? MELANIE W. KATONA,? MICHAEL L. GARGAS,? GWEN C. CORBETT,? AND DENNIS J. PAUSTENBACH* </p> <p> *McLaren/Hart-ChemRisk, 1135 Atlantic Avenue, Alameda, California 94501; ?McLaren/Hart-ChemRisk, 16755 Von Karman Avenue, Irvine, California 92714; and ?McLaren/Hart-ChemRisk, 29225 Chagrin Boulevard, Cleveland, Ohio 44122 </p> <p> Published in: TOXICOLOGY AND APPLIED PHARMACOLOGY 142, 151-159 (1997) ARTICLE NO. TO967993 </p> <p> For good article on the controversy see: The Villain of Hinkley, California Chromium-6 Takes Center Stage by Arjita Sharma National Drinking Water Clearinghouse <a href="http://www.nesc.wvu.edu/ndwc/articles/OT/SP03/Chromium.html">http://www.nesc.wvu.edu/ndwc/articles/OT/SP03/Chromium.html</a> </p>
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