Current worrisome trends U.S. government and academic bioethicists and institutional ethics review boards (IRB) have expunged the explicit honest terminology of the Nuremberg Code: “experiment” has been replaced by the innocuous term “study”; “human subject” is being replaced by “participant”; and the foremost ethical mandate — “the voluntary, informed consent is absolutely essential”—has been perforated…

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Stakeholders in the Medical research enterprise, in the European Union and in the U.S., claim that clinical trials conducted on human subjects adhere to strict safety standards. “One of the things that sets clinical trials apart from other scientific experiments is the obligation for care. Investigators undertaking them have obligations to ensure that patients enrolled…

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