American Medical Association rejects request from 5,000 black physicians to join the AMA. The rejection was widely reported in German medical jounals. (Lifton, Nazi Medicine: the anti-Hippocratic Legacy)

Not until July 2008, did the American Medical Association issue a formal apology for discriminating against black physicians well into the 1960s.

“the AMA failed, across the span of a century, to live up to the high standards that define the noble profession of medicine…The medical profession, which is based on a boundless respect for human life, had an obligation to lead society away from disrespect of so many lives. The AMA failed to do so and has apologized for that failure.” ( Ronlad Davis, MD, Journal of the American Medical Association, July 16, 2008)