1916: American Medical Association, no research ethics code

“Leaders of the American Medical Association briefly considered amending the organization’s code of ethics to include the provision that human experimentation calling for the knowledgeable permission of the subject. The AMA leadership decided not to adopt such a stance believing it both unnecessary in light of the good moral character of American medical researchers and undesirable insofar as such a requirement would impede the progress of medical research.” (Military Medical Ethics, 2003, p. 515)