This entry is part 1 of 5 in the series Nuremberg Code

August 20, 1947: Judgment at Nuremberg: 16 out of 23 doctors were found guilty of crimes against humanity. The Nuremberg verdict also set forth the parameters of “Permissible Medical Experiments” known as the Nuremberg Code. The Nuremberg Code laid the foundation for biomedical ethics mandating that medical experiments conducted on human beings must conform to well-defined…

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This entry is part 2 of 5 in the series Nuremberg Code

American public health officials and the medical community pretended that the Nuremberg Code did not apply to American medical researchers. The assumption was that the physicians who had conducted heinous experiments had been Nazi doctors in Germany; and they rationalized that most of the rogue doctors had been held accountable by the tribunals. (Lederer. Military…

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This entry is part 3 of 5 in the series Nuremberg Code

Judgment at Nuremberg All sixteen Nazi doctors were found guilty; seven were sentenced to death and executed, nine were convicted and sentenced to prison, and seven were acquitted. Karl Gebhardt was found guilty of “crimes against humanity” and war crimes for his experimental atrocities at Ravensbrück and was hanged. His two assistants, Fritz Fischer and…

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This entry is part 4 of 5 in the series Nuremberg Code

The revelations at Nuremberg were extremely discomforting to the American medical establishment: the sheer unprecedented scale of immorality of the Nazi doctors was staggering — and the potential of guilt by association. The fact that the American medical profession had also enthusiastically embraced eugenics; Americans provided financial support for Nazi racial hygiene research; they adopted…

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In 1946, the World Medical Association (WMA) was formed by representatives of 32 national medical associations. In 1947, one month after the conclusion of the Nuremberg Trial, the WMA held its first meeting, when it adopted a new physician’s oath, omitting injunctions against abortion and euthanasia. Almost from its inception, the WMA came under the…

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In 1962, the World Medical Association (WMA) Committee distributes a Draft Code of Ethics on Human Experimentation specifying populations that could not be used as research subjects. These include: children in institutions; all prisoners and persons retained in prisons, penitentiaries, or reformatories, mental hospitals and hospitals for mental defectives. (Draft Code 1962: 1119 cited by Susan…

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Disclosure of the egregious ethical, methodological and legal violations outlined in the letter of determination by the Federal Office of Human Research Protections (OHRP) regarding the so-called SUPPORT oxygen experiment. . . .

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