August 20, 1947: Judgment at Nuremberg

This entry is part 1 of 5 in the series Nuremberg Code

August 20, 1947: Judgment at Nuremberg: 16 out of 23 doctors were found guilty of crimes against humanity. The Nuremberg verdict also set forth the parameters of “Permissible Medical Experiments” known as the Nuremberg Code. The Nuremberg Code laid the foundation for biomedical . . . Continue reading →

1947: U.S. Government-Sponsored Human Experiments Disregard Nuremberg Standards

This entry is part 2 of 5 in the series Nuremberg Code

American public health officials and the medical community pretended that the Nuremberg Code did not apply to American medical researchers. The assumption was that the physicians who had conducted heinous experiments had been Nazi doctors in Germany; and they rationalized that most . . . Continue reading →

August 20, 1947: Judgment at Nuremberg

This entry is part 3 of 5 in the series Nuremberg Code

Judgment at Nuremberg All sixteen Nazi doctors were found guilty; seven were sentenced to death and executed, nine were convicted and sentenced to prison, and seven were acquitted. Karl Gebhardt was found guilty of “crimes against humanity” and war crimes for his . . . Continue reading →

American Medical Establishment Discomforted by Nuremberg

This entry is part 4 of 5 in the series Nuremberg Code

The revelations at Nuremberg were extremely discomforting to the American medical establishment: the sheer unprecedented scale of immorality of the Nazi doctors was staggering — and the potential of guilt by association. The fact that the American medical profession had also enthusiastically . . . Continue reading →

World Medical Association, a haven for leading Nazi doctors

In 1946, the World Medical Association (WMA) was formed by representatives of 32 national medical associations. In 1947, one month after the conclusion of the Nuremberg Trial, the WMA held its first meeting, when it adopted a new physician’s oath, omitting injunctions . . . Continue reading →

1964: Declaration of Helsinki diverges from the Nuremberg Code

In 1962, the World Medical Association (WMA) Committee distributes a Draft Code of Ethics on Human Experimentation specifying populations that could not be used as research subjects. These include: children in institutions; all prisoners and persons retained in prisons, penitentiaries, or reformatories, . . . Continue reading →